Brockville by Gas Light … 1854

The text of two articles from the Brockville Recorder

26 January 1854  &  2 February 1854


Brockville by Gas Light

26 January 1854:

Part one:

How speedily, in the new world, the solitude of the first gives way to the hum of many voices and the busy haunts of men. The spot where, a few years ago, the forest trees waved their leafy branches, has assumed a different aspect. The hardy pioneer penetrates the deep recesses of the woody wilderness, or fixes his abode on the margin of some solemn flowing river. A few years pass away, and other men seek his companionship and settle down beside him. Before the sturdy arms of these pioneers, the forest trees disappear and give place to smiling fields. Other settlers follow, and then again the fields give way to villages. Villages rise to towns, and towns grow to cities, and these important changes are but little noted, because in this, our noble country, they are of almost yearly occurrence.

Men are still living who remember when there was but one house in Brockville. There was little stir then; there is much stir now,   Brockville may not have grown so rapidly as some few other towns in the province, but it has increased greatly, and is becoming more important every year. The solitary one house of old has many companions now. In no town of its size are there so many elegant and substantial buildings to be found as in Brockville. Its stores, in extent, and in the quantity and quality of goods displayed, stand unrivalled. Its merchants are active, progressive men; its mechanics intelligent, and but for the spirit of Toryism (fast dying away), arising from “early associations,” we would almost feel inclined to set our beautifully located town down as the “model town” of Upper Canada.

But we are digressing. Our intention was to take a glimpse of Brockville by gaslight, and despite the snow storm raging around, (Friday and Saturday evenings), we will do so. Let us therefore begin at the Gas House, respecting which we note the following particulars:

The house was built at an expense of something over  1000. It was commenced about the 7th of October [1854] and on the 12th January inst., the gas was lighted for the first time   an evidence of energy with which the Directors carried forward the work. Mr. [William] Holmes was the contractor, but the brick work of the building was done, by Thomas Price;   James Perry, of Montreal, being the superintending spirit of the work. The gas-house is allowed to be a very fine one, being in size 46 by 100 feet. The works, we understand, are capable of supplying gas to a population of 30,000, with additional retorts to those already in operation. It was intended to have the streets lighted, but the directors were unable to procure posts. The lighting of the streets will be carried into effect as soon as possible. When the gas-works went into operation, upwards of 200 had contracted to use the gas. This number has been greatly increased since.

Leaving the gas house, the first glare of “the new light” is obtained from the residence of our esteemed townsman, Dr. [Robert] Edmondson. Passing on, it is next met with at friend W. [William] Gilmour‘s, but as we do not wish to obtrude on the privacy of families, we hurry onward through the drifting snow, till forced to seek shelter with our active and obliging friends, Hillyard and Griffin, who, under the auspices of the “Red Flag,” appear to be doing what the Yankees would call a “smart” business in dry goods and groceries. The stock being well shown off by the gas lights, crowned with chaste-looking white smoke bells edged with green, the appearance of which at a distance seem like inverted “lilies of the Nile”.

Onward a little farther and we step in to friend [Warren] Botsford‘s. Here the gas light forces, with good effect, the stock of hardware, heavy and light, full before the scrutinizing eye. Feeling satisfied of Botsford’s judgment in enlarging his store, and of the great improvement of gas light in displaying stock to advantage, we bid Botsford good night, and jump through the snow right into a bank of warm furs conveniently placed within the well-filled, gas lighted premises of our old friend [Andrew] Donaldson. From this comfortable retreat, we look around, and, imagination busy at work, conjure up the probable fate which might await us, were we surrounded by the living, original owners of Donaldson’s great fur establishment.
At length, remembering that there is no rest for us, we leave our comfortable quarters and enter leisurely the mammoth establishment of J. & S.[John and Samuel] Ross. To form a correct idea of the extent of this store it should be visited. Even with gas light, the length of the store is such, that a good telescope would be required to recognize an acquaintance at the extreme end of the dry goods range. When thoroughly completed, it will match any store in Canada. The various goods are divided into “departments,” each department being presided over by active, intelligent young men. In the chinaware department we observed three elegant dinner sets, two of them white, edged with gold, the third a rich Chinese pattern. In electro plate, we also saw several splendid specimens. We trust the Messrs. Ross will have no cause to regret the outlay ire rendering their store such as would do credit to any city in “the union”.

Crossing the street in an oblique direction from the premises just noticed, we were almost inclined to give friend [Alonzo B.] Dana, a call, but remembering that although he had lately been called out as one of the “town lights,” he had been disappointed in getting his gas fixings fixed, we passed to the drug store of Mr. Allan Turner, chemist and druggist, where alleviates may be obtained: “For all the ills that flesh is heir to” besides “oils and colours,” medical instruments, and a host of other articles as friend [Fordyce] Lothrop would say, “too numerous to mention,” and all to be had “by the light of gas”.

Leaving Mr. Turner’s and again crossing the street, we saw that Mr. [William] Johnston had taken advantage of gas light, which gave his store quite a life-like and lively appearance.

Mr. W. [William] Buell comes next in turn, and what with the light of knowledge in the shape of books of all descriptions to be had at his store, and the light of gas, if darkness prevails, either mentally or physically, the fault will not lie at his door.

Next comes Mr. R. [Robert] Fitzsimmons. Light in the grocery business is of the utmost importance, and Mr. Fitzsimmons has provided his store with an ample supply in order that his customers may see that full justice is done them, both in quantity and quality of their purchases, and which, be the quantity large or small, is always made up with a kind word and a pleasing smile.

Winks and Hutcheson [George Winks & George Hutcheson] stand next on the list. Before entering their “bower,” let us take a look at the windows. These silk velvets, laces, flowers, etc., must have been arranged by some Blythe assistant, no novice at his business. The tout ensemble does the young gentlemen credit. But enter the store and the same neatness of arrangement is observable. Mr. Hutcheson, we know, is method itself, but unless aided by able assistants, the store would sometimes appear “out of order”, but this never happens, and we think the excellent stock of goods, silks, etc., are seen at no disadvantage by gas light.

Here we are at the extensive wholesale and retail establishment of Morton, McKee & Co. [George Morton & Andrew McKee]. These gentlemen have lately enlarged their premises to a considerable extent, and yet every inch is occupied by a large and well-assorted stock of goods dry goods, hardware, crockeryware, groceries, and we do not know how many other wares. When all the contemplated alterations are completed, this will be one of the stores, in which, at night, the gas light will have a fine effect. This establishment is also divided into departments, each having active and obliging clerks to superintend them.

Now for Mr. [Clarence] Ashley’s and “the Golden Key”. Here there is but one department, but that department comprehends almost everything made of iron, or iron and wood, from the finest bradawls up to seven foot saws; from improved mouse traps to patent straw cutters. What may be found at Ashley’s would be as difficult to mention as what may not be found. Whatever is wanted, however, there is gas light enough to search for it.

But we are exhausted, and must break off for the present; next week we will resume our walk.

.Brockville ca1852 (an engraving taken from a drawing by Owen Staples)

The Town of Brockville in the early 1850s.

An engraving based on a drawing by Owen Staples.

2 February 1854:

Part two:

In noticing a few facts connected with the Gas House, we mentioned that Mr. [James] Perry, of Montreal, was the ruling spirit. We meant this in its widest sense. But for the exertions of’ this gentleman and his brother, Mr. A. Perry, of this town, as we stated on a former occasion, there would have been no gas in Brockville. We make this statement in justice to the two gentlemen named.

Last week we left off at Ashley’s. Since then we believe our local contemporary has supplied himself with an extra quantity of gas. We felt inclined to visit the establishment and chronicle the fact, but there was such a leak last Saturday, we were compelled to “make tracks” for the use of a smelling bottled from the establishment of “Ralph and Converse,” under the impression that some nasty, ugly, ill-tempered skunk had taken up its abode near the sanctum of our contemporary.

Ralph and Converse have their premises well lighted, the variegated lights reflecting beautifully on the stock of fancy perfumery, chemical compounds, medicines, etc., placed around their store. In fact this is the best lighted building in town, especially when the Reading Room and the Recorder Office lights are in full blast.

[Edward] Lawless, till he enters his new store still rejoices in lamp-light. We trust to have it in our power to blazon him forth as one of the “new lights” soon.

Friend [Alexander] Starr has done the thing handsomely. His premises, from top to bottom, are splendidly lighted. A well cooked plate of oysters could always be obtained at Mr. Starr’s establishment, but such things will now be swallowed with a double relish in his neat and comfortable back parlour, especially when the quality of fixings are taken into account.

We now introduce our readers to Mr. Thomas Smart. He too has made the most of his premises. Sleek furs and winter garments seem all the smoother when seen by gas-light. One would almost imagine that Smart had the produce of every quarter of the world to show, and they are well shown too. The very idea of being surrounded with so many articles for wear, is almost sufficient to induce a warm feeling towards Smart. May his light never be less.

Friedenheimer’s ;  ah, we must shade our eyes here. That bright light reflected on silver surfaces is really dazzling. Here rich articles for use and ornament are so nicely arranged, that but for the excellent light, it might be difficult to point out the prettiest. Gold and silver watches, rings, chains etc., are here in profusion, and all who know Friedenheimer know that in his hands, whether by daylight or gaslight, they are safe.

Willson’s Hotel is a prominent building in Brockville. From what is known of its spirited proprietor, it will at once be granted that he is not the man to allow a real improvement to escape his notice. Any person visiting the hotel will see at a glance, that gaslight has added much to the comfort of this now celebrated hotel. We might write a whole column in praise of [William H.] Willson‘s establishment, but we know flattery only pains the worthy proprietor, and we therefore leave him to enjoy the popularity he has so justly earned as a kind obliging host.

McKenzie‘s well kept hotel, is the last public place lighted with gas on the river side of the Main street. Mr. [John] McKenzie‘s quiet, kind and unassuming manners have earned for him many patrons. So far as gas-light is concerned, we know few things of so much benefit to a hotel. Mr. McKenzie seems to have been aware of this, and we have no doubt the improved light will add to the many comforts to be found within the friendly domicile of Mr. McKenzie.

Crossing the Main street from Mr. McKenzie’s a little westward, the next store fitted up with gas is that of Mr. Thomas Webster. This gentleman has also considerably enlarged his premises, which are now fitted up in a neat and convenient style. Dry goods, groceries, and hardware are piled around in well-filled compartments, attended to by two active and obliging assistants. The gas-light has improved Mr. Webster’s premises in a very great degree; indeed from the light thrown towards the street, that part of the town seems much more lively at night than it was formerly.

The City Block” cannot he passed unnoticed. Here the Messrs Parr have separate saddlery establishments, although that of Mr. Arthur Parr is the only one as yet furnished with gas. Under Mr. A. Parr’s store, as we mentioned a week or more ago, Mr. [Elihu] Spencer has opened a [daguerreotype] saloon, fitted up in city style. The saloon is also well lighted with gas.

Buss and McClear are the next progressive men we find on our list. These gentlemen have but lately “opened store” in Flint’s building, with a large stock of groceries, etc. and from their having introduced gas into their premises, it would appear they are determined not to hide themselves under a bushel.

Mr. Cole also holds out the inducement of “shaving made easy” by the light of gas. Mr. Cole’s attending to business is well known, and there is no probability that his attention will be less than heretofore.

Ah, friend, [Thomas] Camm, do not be afraid; though last, you are by no means least in the list of improvers. Some philosophers profess to mend other people’s morals, others profess to mend the manners of their fellow man; but it is thy duty, as it is thy business, to make some men, and to mend others (in shape we mean.) In this thy useful, and therefore honourable vocation, gas-light is an object not to be lightly esteemed. While, therefore, you improve others, we trust the new light” will lead you in the path of improving your own fortune.

This concludes our walk through Brockville by gas-light If any gas-consumers are omitted in the list, we will willingly notice them next week, if informed of the omission.

P.S. – Since the above was written, we understand that Mr. Dana has lighted his premises with gas. Leather and light will now go hand in hand.

Gas Works

A later photo of the old Gas Works on St. Paul St.

Local Members of Parliament … 1792 – 1878

Brockville, Leeds, Grenville

from the History of Leeds and Grenville by Thad. W.H. Leavitt,

published in 1879 by the Recorder Press, Brockville

Chapter 18, page 63:

By an Act promulgated by proclamation in the year 1800, the following division of the Province was made:

The County of Grenville comprised the Townships of Edwardsburg, Augusta, Wolford, Oxford, Marlborough, Montague, North and South Gower.

The County of Leeds: Elizabethtown, Yonge, (Escott), Lansdowne, Leeds, Crosby, Bastard, Burgess, Elmsley and Kitley.   (Leeds County was created in 1792. It’s name came from Francis Osborne, 5th Duke of Leeds)

At that date the District of Johnston included Leeds and Grenville, as well as Carleton, and for many years the Justices in Session appointed the Constables for the latter county.

The union was repealed 2nd Geo. IV., C. 5.


Upper Canada Legislative Assembly

First Parliament – 1792-96:

Leeds – John Booth,  Grenville – (unknown)

Second Parliament – 1797-1800:

Leeds – John Booth,  Grenville – (unknown)

Third Parliament – 1801-04:

Leeds – William Buell,  Grenville – Samuel Sherwood

Fourth Parliament – 1805-08:

Leeds – Dr. Peter Howard,  Grenville – Samuel Sherwood

Fifth Parliament – 1808-12:

Leeds – Dr. Peter Howard,   Grenville – (unknown)

Sixth Parliament – 1812-16:

Leeds – Dr. Peter Howard,   Grenville – (unknown) 

Seventh Parliament – 1817-20:

Leeds – Jonas Jones,   Grenville – Dr. Peter Howard

Jones Jonas

Jonas Jones

Eighth Parliament – 1821-24:

Leeds – Levius P. Sherwood,   Charles Jones
Grenville – Walter F. Gates,   Jonas Jones

Ninth Parliament – 1825-28:

Leeds – Charles Jones,  David Jones

Grenville – Jonas Jones,  Hamilton Walker

Tenth Parliament – 1829-30:

Leeds – William Buell, Jr. ,  John Kilborn

Grenville – George Longley,  Rufus E. Henderson

Buell Wm Jr (Lock)

William Buell, Jr.

Eleventh Parliament – 1831-34:

Brockville – Henry Jones

Leeds – William Buell, Jr.,  Matthew M. Howard

Grenville – Edward Jessup, III (d. 1831),  Hiram NortonRichard D. Fraser

Twelfth Parliament – 1835-36:

Brockville – David Jones

Leeds –  Ogle R. Gowan (unseated), William Buell, Jr. (April 1836),   Robert S. Jameson (unseated),  Matthew M. Howard (April 1836)

Grenville – Hiram Norton, William B. Wells

Gowan, Ogle R.

Ogle R. Gowan

Thirteenth Parliament – 1837-40:

Brockville – Henry Sherwood

Leeds –  Jonas Jones (appointment),   James Morris (Dec. 1837),   Ogle R. Gowan    (Jonas Jones was appointed Registrar for Dundas County)

Grenville – Hiram Norton,   William B. Wells


Appointed Members of the Legislative Council

1829-40   Charles Jones

1831-41   Alexander Grant, Jr.    (did not attend after 1832)

1839-41   Jonas Jones


Canadian Parliament

First Parliament  1841:

Brockville – James Jessup

Leeds – James Morris

Grenville – Samuel Crane

Morris James 1840s

James Morris

Second Parliament 1844-45:

Brockville – George Sherwood

Leeds – Ogle R. Gowan

Grenville – Hamilton D. Jessup

Third Parliament 1848:

Brockville – George Sherwood

Leeds – William B. Richards

Grenville – Read Burritt

RICHARDS, William B. (improved) - OSGOODE Hall, Toronto - 16 MAR 2012

William Buell Richards

Fourth Parliament 1852-53:

Brockville – George Crawford

Leeds – William B. Richards

Grenville – William Patrick

Fifth Parliament 1854-55:

Brockville – George Crawford

North Leeds & Grenville – Basil R. Church

South Leeds –  Jessie Delong

South Grenville – William Patrick

Sixth Parliament   1858:

Brockville – George Sherwood

North Leeds & Grenville – Basil R. Church

South Leeds – Benjamin Tett

South Grenville – William Patrick

Seventh Parliament   1862:

Brockville – Hon. George Sherwood

North Leeds & Grenville – Francis Jones

South Leeds – Benjamin Tett

South Grenville – William Patrick

Richards, Albert N. engraving (from Dent)

Albert N. Richards

Eighth Parliament  1863:

Brockville – FitzWilliam H. Chambers

North Leeds & Grenville – Francis Jones

South Leeds – Albert N. Richards

South Grenville – Walter Shanly


Dominion Parliament

First Parliament   1867-68:

Brockville – James Crawford

North Leeds & Grenville – Francis Jones

South Leeds – John Crawford

South Grenville – Walter Shanly

Second Parliament   1873:

Brockville – Jacob D. Buell

North Leeds & Grenville – Francis Jones

South Leeds – Albert N. Richards

South Grenville – William H. Brouse

Third Parliament   1874:

Brockville – Jacob D. Buell

North Leeds & Grenville – Charles F. Ferguson

South Leeds – David F. Jones

South Grenville – William H. Brouse

FITZSIMMONS William 1873

William Fitzsimmons

Fourth Parliament   1878:

Brockville – William Fitzsimmons

North Leeds & Grenville – Charles F. Ferguson

South Leeds – David Ford Jones

South Grenville – J. P. Wiser

Appointed Members of the Legislative Council

1842-1850   Levius P. Sherwood  (died in 1850)

1844-1865  James Morris  (died in 1865)

1858 – 1867  –   St. Lawrence Division – George Crawford  (re-appointed to the Senate in 1867)

The St. Lawrence Division consisted of Brockville, Elizabethtown, South Riding of Grenville, North Riding of Leeds and Grenville, and the County of Dundas.

CRAWFORD George c1879

George Crawford

1860   –   Bathurst Division  –  James Shaw

1878   –   Bathurst Division  –  William H. Brouse

The Bathurst Division for the Legislative Council consisted of the South Riding of Leeds, and the North and South Ridings of Lanark.

Legislative Assembly for Ontario

First Parliament   1867-68:

Brockville – William Fitzsimmons

North Leeds and Grenville – H. D. Smith

South Leeds – Benjamin Tett

South Grenville – McNeil Clark

Second Parliament   1871:

Brockville – William Fitzsimmons

North Leeds and Grenville – Henry Merrick

South Leeds – Herbert. S. McDonald, who resigned;  succeeded by J.G. Giles

South Grenville – McNeil Clark; succeeded by C.F. Fraser

Fraser C F 1873

Christopher F. Fraser

Third Parliament   1875:

Brockville – Wilmot H. Cole

North Leeds and Grenville – Henry Merrick.

South Leeds – R. H. Preston

South Grenville – Christopher F. Fraser

Government Positions:

Hon. Henry Sherwood, Solicitor-General for Upper Canada, from October 7th 1844 to June 30th, 1846.

Hon. Henry Sherwood, Attorney-General for Upper Canada, from May 29th 1847 to March 10 1848.

Hon. Henry Sherwood, member of the Executive Council, from May 29th 1847 to March 10th, 1848, and from August 6th 1858 to May 23rd 1862.

Hon. William Morris, Receiver-General, from September 2nd 1844 to May 20th 1847.

Hon. William Morris, member of the Executive Council, from September 22nd 1844 to March 10th 1848.

Hon. William Morris, member of new Board of Public Works, from October 4th 1844 to June 8th 1846.

Hon. William Morris, President of the Executive Council, from May 22nd 1847 to March 10th 1848.

Hon. James Morris , Postmaster-General, from February 22nd 1851 to August 10th 1853.

Hon. James Morris, member of the Executive Council, from February 22nd 1851 to September 10th 1854; from August 2nd 1858 to August 4th 1858; and from May 24th 1862, to March 6th 1863.

Hon. William B. Richards, Attorney-General for Upper Canada, from October 28th 1851 to June 21st 1853.

Hon. William B. Richards, member of Executive Council, from October 28th 1851 to June 21st 1853.

Hon. George Sherwood, member of the Executive Council, from August 6th 1858 to May 23rd 1862.

Hon. George Sherwood, Receiver-General, from August 7th 1858 to March 26th 1862.

Hon. George Sherwood, Commissioner of Crown Lands, from March 27th 1862 to May 23rd 1862.

Hon. Albert N. Richards, Solicitor-General, from December 26th 1863 to January 30th 1864.

Hon. Albert N. Richards, member of the Executive Council, from December 26th 1863 to January 30th 1864.

Brockville in 1852

A selected excerpt from Canada: Its Growth and Prospects”,

two lectures delivered before the Toronto Mechanics Institute

on the 13th and 27th February 1852, by the Rev. Adam Lillie:




Brockville has a population of about 3400, and is “the capital” of the United Counties of Leeds and Grenville. Here the public buildings are located and the principal courts and sittings of the Counties municipality are usually held.

It is situated on the banks of the St. Lawrence. That noble river in front, rolling its clear waters onward to the ocean; while westward to the great inland lakes, the vision is lost amid numerous beautiful islands that lie scattered upon its surface; and eastward with the stream, immediately below the town, three islands break upon the view. These islands present a continuous chain, at irregular distances, from shore to shore, a distance of about 5000 feet, which at a future day, not far distant in these days of rapid progression in Canada, may form the foundation for the piers of a railroad bridge to span the St. Lawrence and connect Canada with the United States. The level of the shores on either side, a short distance back from the edge of the river, are about 100 feet above high water level.

Brockville is to be one of the terminus of the proposed “Lake Huron and St. Lawrence Railroad”, which has been surveyed, and for which plans and specifications are now in course of preparation. The distance hence to Georgian Bay on Lake Huron is said to be under 200 miles, through a country, the greater part of the way, is most favourable for constructing a railroad, and which will offer great inducements for the emigrant to become a settler on the wild lands adjoining the route.

The distance from Brockville to Montreal is about 146 miles, which is reached by steam navigation in 12 or 14 hours, passing through the far famed rapids of the St. Lawrence, or by railroad through the northern front of the State of New York, for about three-fourths of the distance, in 10 to 12 hours. It is distant from New York and Boston; from the later about 400 and from the former about 500 miles, which may be made by railway most of the distance in 20 to 30 hours.

Brockville 1848 engraving (based on Wm Sherwood sketch)

A view of Brockville from the St. Lawrence River. This engraving is dated 1848 and was based on a drawing done by Brockville lawyer, William Sherwood.

Not less than eight of the largest and first class steamers from Canadian and American ports touch at the wharves daily, during the season of navigation, independent of the very many smaller steam and sail craft, offering hourly unlimited facilities for the transport of property and for travel east and west.

The town is chiefly supported by the agriculturists in rear, whose fine farms are scattered over the land, and weekly pour in their surplus productions over the turnpike, macadamized, and plank roads, to be exchanged for the manufactures of the town, or those from Britain and the United States.

A number of valuable manufactories are carried on, embracing a large factory for farming utensils, some of which made a most creditable display in the Crystal Palace Exhibition of 1851, one stove foundry and machine shop, and another in course of erection, a flouring and two saw-mills driven by the waters of ” Mill Creek,” which mingle with the St. Lawrence at the western end of the town. A steam saw-mill and planing-mill, three tanneries, with many and various other mechanical trades and occupations are in successful operation and employment. There is also an extensive brick-yard, and a commodious ship-yard.

Merchants stores, with goods from the four corners of the globe, are here in abundance; three bank offices of discount, telegraph office, post office, custom office   this port being also a warehousing port   and last, though not least, the town boasts of two weekly newspapers, the Recorder and the Statesman, which have large circulation in the adjoining counties. There is also in the town an extensive public library, and a well conducted reading-room, in which may be found the leading journals of Canada, Britain, and the United States.

We cannot do better than close this brief and imperfect description by extracting from a correspondent’s letter in the Recorder of 8th April last, a sketch of Brockville:

“Few towns in North America, and none in Canada, will compare with Brockville, in the beauty and healthfulness of its site. Situated upon a gently rising ground, on the summit of which stands the Court House, a model of architectural elegance and substantiality, with its classic Figure of Justice overlooking all beneath it. Immediately in rear the grounds beautifully undulate like the summer ocean, and coursing along the base of these undulations, like the great Sea Serpent amid the billows of the ‘mighty deep’ is Mill Creek, whose waters drive the busy ‘click clack’ of various machinery. Immediately to the east and to the west, some of them embowered in trees, rise the lofty spires of numerous stone, rough cast, and brick churches, where meet our towns-people to serve their God, none daring to make them afraid. In front, and away to the right and left, are many solid and handsome private dwellings, not a few surrounded by choice gardens, orchards, and other useful conveniences so necessary to good.

Up and down the Main Street are numerous substantial and handsome brick, rubble, and cut-stone stores, hotels, and other places of business. Still further off, upon Water Street, is seen the superfluous steam issuing from the work shops of the industrious and enterprising bee-hive like manufacturer and mechanic. Richly studded with islands in front, above and below the town, the ‘mighty St. Lawrence,’ touching the banks of the great and growing Republic, rolls its clear waters to the ocean, and floating, in season, ‘Watt’s’ life-moving palaces laden with the hardy emigrant from our father-land, and the fruits of trade and commerce, or the produce of the backwoodsmen and toiling agriculturist.”